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Showing posts with label Lucid Lynx. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Lucid Lynx. Show all posts

Saturday, 17 July 2010

Beginners Guide to the Ubuntu Terminal

Tux, as originally drawn by Larry EwingImage via Wikipedia












The Terminal window is often a barrier for new Linux users blocking them from effectively using the Linux desktop. Many users have been using point and click methods of desktop navigation since MS-DOS in the 80s. The idea of typing text into a command window can be a bit overwhelming for todays average computer user but it shouldn't be. Today we'll be using the Ubuntu 8.10 desktop which is available for download here
The advantages of using the command-line Terminal to accomplish tasks are great. The speed of using the terminal in a fraction of that it takes to accomplish the same task graphically. Try installing a package using the synaptic package manager. That would include at least six clicks of the mouse and typing in the root password once. Or you could use the terminal by clicking on Applications --- Accessories --- Terminal. (Kubuntu users click Menu --- System --- Konsole, Xubuntu users click Applications --- Accessories --- Terminal) Once you've opened the Terminal with your first click you can type 
sudo apt-get install amarok
Then enter the root password and that's it. You package will be downloaded and installed from the terminal window.
From this example you can see the difference in speed, but another advantage of using the Terminal window is the return you get when something goes wrong. If you're using the GUI desktop to accomplish a task and something happens you generally get a one line description but if you're using the Terminal you will receive a more in-depth description of your problem. Yet another advantage to using the command-line Terminal is the universal element that giving commands holds over using a GUI. As you can see from even trying to locate the Terminal, the path to accomplishing a task with the GUI may vary when you're using Ubuntu, Kubuntu, Xubuntu etc. While Terminal commands aren't always the same in different distributions, you can issue the same commands for Ubuntu, Kubuntu, Edubuntu, Xubuntu and count on their effectiveness.
If you prefer to point and click instead of typing any commands into the Terminal you may find shelter under a few other Linux distributions like Mepis, Linspire and a few others. And also this all depends on what you use your computer for. If you play Solitaire and use the Internet to interact with your friends and that's it, it's possible you may never need the Terminal window on Ubuntu.
Lets take a look at some very simple commands on the Ubuntu desktop that will allow us to effectively accomplish some small tasks. After you've opened the Terminal window you can start typing in the commands. Below is a list of some useful commands and what they are used for.
  • sudo command – run command as root
  • apt-get - used to install, remove, upgrade and more.
Movement In The directory
  • cd - Change Directory
  • pwd - Print Working Directory

Managing Files and Text
  • cp - Copy
  • ls - List
  • mkdir - Make Directory
  • mv - Move
  • rm - Remove
  • grep - Search for Text Strings
  • head - Display Start of File
  • less - Display Part of File
  • more - Display Part of File
  • tail - View the End of a File
Managing System and Program Information
  • cal - Calendar
  • date - Date
Troubleshooting
  • fsck - File System Check

Managing Network Connections
  • chkconfig - Check Activated Services
  • ping - Test Network Connections
  • ftp - file Transfer Protocol
  • host - Check IP of Domain
  • ifconfig - Configure Network Devices
  • netstat - Display Routing Table
  • route - Set Routes
  • telnet - Connect to telnet
  • traceroute - Display Route

Manage Drives and Formats
  • mount - Mount a Drive
  • umount - Unmount Drive
  • fdisk - Format Disk
  • dd - Dupliate Disk
  • df - Disk Free Space

Managing Rights to Files and Directories
  • chmod - Change Mode
  • su - Switch User

Managing Users and Groups
  • passwd - Create Password
  • groupadd - Add a Group
  • groupmod - Modify a Group
  • chgrp - Change Group
  • groupdel - Delete Group




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Known Lucid Lynx issues/bugs with workarounds

ubuntu bug jamImage by ebel via Flickr
I got this infomation from the Ubuntu Forums thought someone may find it useful.


The purpose of this post is to list known Lucid Lynx issues and bugs, and give the corresponding workarounds and launchpad entries.

Feel free to propose other known Lucid Lynx bugs to be listed here but please provide a link to the workaround and a link to the corresponding launchpad entry.

-------------------------------------------------
Warning: Before upgrading or attempting a reinstall make sure you backup essential files.
Please read the Release Notes:-

http://www.ubuntu.com/getubuntu/releasenotes/1004
Upgrade 8.04 -> 10.04 can break apt-get.
The package flashplugin-nonfree has been problematic when upgrading 8.04 -> 10.04 and breaks apt-get;

Bug Report

For those not wanting to read the bug report in detail, the fix is :













Code:
sudo rm /var/lib/dpkg/info/flashplugin-nonfree.prerm

sudo dpkg --remove --force-remove-reinstreq flashplugin-nonfree
sudo dpkg --purge --force-remove-reinstreq flashplugin-nonfree
Nautilus location bar, bread crumbs vs text based.
Breadcrumbs is now the default. The button to switch between the two has been removed. Users can switch with ctrl+l and then esc to revert to breadcrumbs. To permanently switch to text users have to use gconf-editor from a terminal. Note: gconf-editor has been removed from the menus. The key is.
apps>nautilus> preferences> always_use_location_entry


Minimize, Maximize and Close button placement.
A decision has been taken to move the placement to the left. Mark Shuttleworth explained that this was because "something" is going to be placed in the right hand area in the next release. Moving the buttons now would help enable this change.
[Update ]http://www.markshuttleworth.com/archives/333

The buttons are in the old location on all default themes apart from Ambiance,Radiance and Dust, If you still want the Ambiance ,Radiance or Dust theme but with buttons on the right, choose one of those other themes and use the Customize button to achieve what you want. e.g.
1. System > Preferences > Appearance
2. Select the theme icon "New Wave"
3. Click the button "Customize.."
4. Select tab "Controls" and select "Ambiance"
5. Select tab "Window border" and select "Ambiance"
6. Select tab "Icons" and scroll down and select "Ubuntu-mono-dark"
7. Select "Save Theme" to your choice.
Using gconf-editor is not the right approach as this could bork future themes. This change makes it easier for themes to do interesting things with window borders. Unfortunately, if the wrong approach spreads, they won't be able to do that.


Problem with Huawei and possibly other usb mobile broadband dongles. 
Please see this bug report and click the affects me button if you have this bug.
Try this first












Code:
sudo apt-get install usb-modeswitch
A fix is committed. https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+s...ux/+bug/446146.
Also fix/workaround here. https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+s...ux/+bug/509547 See post #32


Bootup/Plymouth. 
Users should experience a much faster boot however some users may experience problems with Plymouth after the nVidia graphics driver has been enabled. Users may experience plymouth using lower graphics resolution.
https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+s...th/+bug/551013

Graphical solution : http://news.softpedia.com/news/How-t...4-140810.shtml

Command line :
(Some of the fixes put forward dont work for everyone.)
One that works for nVidia and to try is this.












Code:
gksu gedit /etc/default/grub
and add the line in BOLD.
# The resolution used on graphical terminal
# note that you can use only modes which your graphic card supports via VBE
# you can see them in real GRUB with the command `vbeinfo'
#GRUB_GFXMODE=500x480
GRUB_GFXPAYLOAD_LINUX=1680x1050 Save the file and run











Code:
sudo update-grub
The resolution chosen should be your monitors native resolution.

Other graphics card users including nVidia may get a black screen with flashing cursor and then a very short duration plymouth.
https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+s...th/+bug/540801
One fix for this is to create this file.












Code:
gksu gedit /etc/initramfs-tools/conf.d/splash
and add this option FRAMEBUFFER=y, save the file.
Then












Code:
sudo update-initramfs -u
Plymouth now has a hard dependency on mountall thus trying to remove Plymouth would remove half the OS. The advice is, if you don't want a graphical boot then uninstall any plymouth themes.

If the problem is a slow boot, and you have no floppy drive, disable the floppy in the bios. This has been reported as a fix to this.
https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+s...ks/+bug/539515 FIX Released.
https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+s...ks/+bug/551712

If the problem is plymouth not displaying, and a black screen from grub to gdm, this could be due to graphics drivers needing to be loaded quicker. This is bugged.
https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+s...ux/+bug/539787

Plymouth is installed with 2 themes by default you can install more via synaptic.
To change themes this code is used.













Code:
sudo update-alternatives --config default.plymouth
Java. 
Sun java has been deprecated. Openjdk is now the default, i.e installing ubuntu-restricted-extras with recommends will install openjdk and the icedtea plugin. Openjdk has been certified by Java SE Test Compatibility Kit (TCK) and is compatible with the Java(TM) SE 6 platform on the amd64 (x86_64) and i386 (ix86) architectures. However sun-java is in the partner repo.
There's a bug regarding the icedtea plugin and certain applets.
https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+s...-6/+bug/551328.
Not fixed yet. Workaround may be to create a new Firefox profile.


Boot options hidden by default on Desktop and Netbook LIVECDs
The Ubuntu 10.04 LTS Desktop and Netbook CDs feature a new boot interface that is non interactive by default.
To configure advanced boot options, press any key at the first boot screen.


Scrolling with ALPS Laptop Touchpads
Various users who have ALPS touchpads have reported that scrolling no longer works in the final release. A bug report is already open on the case, and the current workaround is to run:












Code:
sudo rmmod psmouse
sudo modprobe psmouse proto=imps
If this works, you can make it permanent by putting:












Code:
options psmouse proto=imps
At the bottom of the file /etc/modprobe.d/options


Ubuntu shuts down after unplugging Laptop power cord
A problem known with MSI wind and some Vostro users.

Current workaround is to open gconf-editor and browse to:












Code:
/apps/gnome-power-manager/general
And de-select the option use_time_for_policy

There is no need to restart, just close the configuration editor.












A lot of users are overwriting their windows boot sector due to a confusing message with the grub2 install. It says something like 'Choose where to install grub. If you are not sure select all partitions'. And this leads some to select their windows partition.

NOTE: if you are reading this before you upgrade, the only place you should install grub is to the drive you are booting from. For most people it's /dev/sda . If you installed from within windows (a WUBI install), do not install the grub2 bootloader - leave all boxes unchecked.

The fix and diagnosis is at: 
http://sourceforge.net/apps/mediawik...ms:Boot_Sector courtesy of meierfra.

This is not the same as the bug that caused the re-release of certain iso's. That had to do with the windows not being listed in the grub menu. In this case, the windows option is listed but fails to boot.

Links to launchpad bug(s);
https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+s...b2/+bug/571893
https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+s...b2/+bug/576724



There is a rather permanent problem with the propietary ati drivers. Maximizing and unminimizing is terribly slow with compiz enabled. There are several workarounds, however. You could either try the no-backfill xserver, the back-clear patch or enable Direct2D.

Direct2D can be enabled with the following steps:

1. backup your current xorg.conf

~$ cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf /etc/X11/xorg.conf.bak


2. delete the contents of xorg.conf

3. let aticonfig make an initial configuration:
~$ sudo aticonfig --initial

4. then enable Direct2D:
~$ sudo aticonfig --set-pcs-str=DDX,Direct2DAccel,TRUE
I personally prefer the backclear patch as I noticed that although the maximizing issue is reolved with Direct2D, scrolling in for example emacs becomes totally sluggish. You can find more information on the backclear patch here:


http://www.phoronix.com/forums/showthread.php?p=125046



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Friday, 4 June 2010

Why are we using windows? We have better free operating systems like Ubuntu.

I have long been a windows devotee and would scoff at the thought of using any other operating system other than windows. It has not been until recently I wondered why I had such devotion to one operating system.

I am afraid I was a victim of Microsoft's FUD principle, thats Fear Uncertainty and Doubt. Sure windows operating systems seemed to cater for all my needs and without knowing any better I accepted the many flaws in the O/S. I had eagerly awaited the release of windows 7, and hastily went about learning all about windows 7 as I could. I must admit I was impressed with the improvements over vista and began to use it as my main o/s.

I had purchased an ASUS net-book as i was swept up by the net-book craze. It came with Windows Xp Home pre installed. The little net-book came with 1gb ram so i decided to boost the ram to 2gb to give the little system a bit more speed. Over time windows slowly started to slow down although being a qualified computer technician none of the software tools and tweaks i used helped to speed things up.

I came across an article about Ubuntu net-book Edition and the benefits of using it over windows. Out of curiosity I downloaded a 100% free copy of the Ubuntu net-book Edition O/S    and installed it over my net-books windows installation.

Instantly I was impressed by the overall speed of the operating system. Boot time was a 500% improvement over my old windows installation and the list of pre installed software was amazing. After a few weeks of using the ubuntu Netbook Edition I decided to install Ubuntu Karmic Koala 9.10 and get the full ubuntu experience.

I have been using Ubuntu for nearly 12 months now and I cannot see any reason to return to windows. I have 6 systems in my home and all have Ubuntu Lucid Lynx 10.4 installed. I no longer have to fork out ludicrous amounts of money for Microsoft operation systems, office products and anti virus software. Ubuntu offers many better products usually pre-installed with Ubuntu an easy to use software center to install thousands of free applications.

Below I will point out my reasoning for using Ubuntu over Windows products.


  • Ubuntu is 100% free and always will be.
  • Regular automatic updates.
  • Why spend hundreds on Microsoft Office when Open Office is free for all and comes with thousands of add-ons, extensions and themes for all to use.
  • No virus worries!!! Yes Ubuntu can get a virus but they are very very rare and almost impossible to execute with out your permission. Free virus software like Clam AV is available to insure you don't unwitting infect a windows user.
  • Ubuntu One!! Well finally we have local files synchronized with online storage. Simply sign up for a free 2GB Ubuntu One account allow Ubuntu One to Sync files with your system. Then just right click on any file in your home folder to sync its contents to Ubuntu ones storage server. 
  • Easy to install just download from Ubuntu
  • Stability Ubuntu just runs perfectly all the time. What blue screen of death????????
  • I can Install Microsoft applications using wine.
  • If I really need to use windows I can create a virtual machine with Virtual Box Or VMware Player.
  • Excellent driver support.
  • Oh did I mention everything is free!
To sum things up, I have no reason to return to windows products and refuse to be a victim of a powerful marketing powerhouse. Microsoft should spend more time improving their products both in price and functionality rather than marketing inferior software and services. They pretend to have the public interest at heart while raping our wallets and wasting our time.

Although there are many Linux distros to be explored but for now my heart is with Ubuntu. Thanks to Mark Shuttleworth a self made millionaire whom is fully supporting the Ubuntu project we finally have a user friendly linux the home user can sink their teeth into. Mark Shuttleworth I would walk over broken glass to help the Ubuntu team show the world Microsoft is taking us all for a very expensive ride.







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Saturday, 8 May 2010

Ubuntu Lucid Lynx 10.04 RC 32bit Screencast How-to Install Video

Review style Screencast on How-to Install and use all the new features of Ubuntu Linux Lucid Lynx LTS 10.04 RC 32bit, demo done inside VirtualBox Virtual Machine in Kubuntu Karmic Koala.
The release candidate for Ubuntu 10.04 "Lucid Lynx", the last testing build before the final version scheduled for release next week, is ready for download: "The Ubuntu team is pleased to announce the Release Candidate for Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (Long-Term Support) Desktop. We consider this release candidate to be complete, stable, and suitable for testing by any user."

New features include: Linux kernel 2.6.32, HAL removal, New default open source driver for nVidia hardware, Improved support for nVidia proprietary graphics drivers, Social from the Start, New boot experience, New Indicators, New Themes, Ubuntu One File Syncing, Ubuntu One Music Store, and I demonstrate those new cool things like the Mucic Store in Rythumbox and iPhone and iPod Touch support s built-in.
Original video production by the http://www.OSGUI.com Tech Show.





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Ubuntu 10.04 LTS Lucid Lynx My First Impressions

Yeah, I know. There are about a million blog articles of this nature floating around on the web, but what the heck. Blogging is all about freedom of speech and expression of opinions and ideas. Here's what I've got so far on the Lucid Lynx.

First off, I was amazed by the fact that I could quickly and easily download the ISO for the 32-bit desktop. It was only about 24 hours after the initial release when I gave it a shot, and there were no delays at all. I find torrents obnoxious, so I did the straight download directly from
Ubuntu.com. No muss, no fuss. 



I joke that I don't try a new Windows desktop OS until the first service pack is released. That's usually pretty good advice, but even with Linux, I don't download and install a brand new release of a distro on my production machine. In this case, I ran the ISO directly in VMware Workstation 7 to give it a shot. I used the easy install option just for giggles. This bypasses the manual configuration for the OS which isn't always a good idea, but I figured the worst that could happen is that I'd experience a major fubar and have to blow away the VM.

Everything worked well. Installation was quick and the current version of VMware Workstation automatically installs VMware Tools for Linux, so it's an almost totally hands off experience. Then, when the GUI came up, I hit a snag. The mouse worked fine, but the keyboard was totally non-responsive. This could have been an Ubuntu issue, a VMware issue, or maybe wireless Dell keyboards just don't work and play well with Ubuntu. I fired up Google and started my search.

I found just about a ton of posts in different threads at the Ubuntu forums including 
this one and this one. They all give more or less the same advice about solutions, but I specifically referenced a thread dealing with Ubuntu 10.04 and VMware Player, which worked out for me just fine. After using the virtual keyboard option to enter my password, I was able to login and thereafter, my wireless keyboard behaved as expected.

I haven't had a lot of time to play with the Lucid Lynx VM as yet, but there were a few things I took care of right away. First, I installed
Ubuntu Tweak, if for no other reason, than to be able to put a folder for my home directory on the desktop. It offers a lot of other great features as well, but it disappoints me that so many simple configuration options don't come with Ubuntu "off-the-rack".
There are a large number of "what to do after you install Ubuntu 10.04" blogs and tutorials around, and I chose the one featured at 
my-guides.net because it seemed to be reasonably comprehensive and wasn't afraid to use the apt-get system to tweak Ubuntu.

I didn't follow most of the steps in the tutorial, at least so far, but I did run 
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras to enable Adobe Flash Player, JRE with Firefox plug-ins, and a few other things. I might even get around to installing the Google Chrome browser just to try it out on Linux, but Firefox serves me for now.

Oh, and I installed GIMP, which was a breeze using the Ubuntu Software Centre. I'll post more details as I get the chance to do something more substantial with the Lynx.





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